2018 Integrated Report – On track towards a better Railway

Glossary

A

Auslastung

Realer Anteil der Nutzung an der möglichen Kapazität.

Airborne pollutants

Air pollution that can have a detrimental effect on the environment. An airborne pollutant can be caused naturally or by people, for example NOx or SO₂.

B

Bond

Interest-bearing security which is used to borrow funds on the capital market. Helps mid- to long-term debt financing by companies

Bus kilometers (bus km)

The journey of a bus over a distance of 1 km.

C

Contracting organization

In general, the Federal states that, as public transport authorities, order regional rail passenger transport services from transport companies.

Capital employed

Includes property, plant and equipment (including intangible assets) and the net current assets.

Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP)

An international organization which runs the global disclosure system for investors, companies, cities, countries and regions to measure and control their environmental impacts. It is now the world’s largest emissions register for business-related greenhouse gas emissions.

CO₂ equivalents

Gases that affect climate change, such as methane and nitrous oxide, which are converted to CO₂ based on their equivalent climate impact.

Commercial paper program (CP program)

Contractual framework or model documentation for the issue of commercial papers.

Compliance

An important component of corporate governance. This is understood as compliance with laws and directives, as well as voluntary codes of conduct in the company.

Cost of capital

Based on market values as a weighted average of risk-adequate market returns for the minimum return requirement calculated for debt and equity capital.

Climate

Not only weather, but also a snapshot of climate factors (altitude, relief, vegetation, etc.) and climate elements (rain, sunlight, etc.) at a location.

Combined transport

Combined transport of containers or entire trucks on rail and road.

Contract logistics

Service packages comprising multiple logistics activities. The service provider not only organizes transport orders, but also independently undertakes parts of the value-added chain.

Credit facilities

Credit facilities granted by banks which can be utilized if necessary. These are firmly committed credit lines with different maturities, some of which serve as liquidity reserves that are available at all times, while umbrella credit lines are available to foreign subsidiaries in particular for working capital financing and as a guarantee line.

Customer satisfaction

Satisfaction of customers and partners with a product/offer or a service, surveyed on a representative basis and evaluated on behalf of DB Group by independent market research institutes by telephone, in person or online.

Customer satisfaction index

Index generally rated on a grading scale of 1 (very satisfied) to 6 (very dissatisfied). These grades are converted and shown on a scale of 0 to 100: (0 points = grade 6; 20 points = grade 5; 40 points = grade 4; 60 points = grade 3; 80 points = grade 2; 100 points = grade 1).

D

DB traction current mix

Electrical traction current that DB Netze Energy uses to supply DB Group’s own rail transport companies in Germany.

DBeco plus

Service for rail freight transport customers to have their goods transported without CO₂ emissions on all electrified lines within Germany and Austria.

Debt issuance program

Contractual framework or model documentation for the issuance of bonds. This guarantees a high degree of flexibility in issuing activity.

Derivative financial instruments (derivatives)

Financial instruments, the price or value of which depends on the future rates or prices of other goods, assets or reference values (interest rates, indices). These are contracts in which the contracting parties agree to buy, sell or swap assets at specified conditions in the future, or alternatively make value equalization payments.

Diversity

Refers to variation within the workforce with regard to gender, background, nationality, age, religion, sexual orientation and levels of physical and mental ability. Diversity also encompasses employees’ variety of views, values, professional experiences and skills.

E

Employer attractiveness

Measured as a weighted average of employer ranking in the main target groups, as determined by trendence – Europe’s leading research institute in employer branding, HR marketing and recruiting.

Existing network

Existing rail network and therefore core of the infrastructure.

Evaluation of facilities quality

To ensure maintenance funds are used according to demand and to assess improvements stemming from implemented measures, the condition of structural and technical facilities undergo a periodic and event-driven evaluation.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

Operating profit before interest and taxes.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

Operating profit before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization.

Equity ratio

Key financial indicator based on the balance sheet structure: proportion of equity in the balance sheet total as a percentage.

Equity method/at-equity accounting

Procedures for conducting the accounting of subsidiaries, which are not included in the consolidated financial statements on the basis of full consolidation with all assets and liabilities. The book value of the subsidiary is adjusted by the development of the pro rata equity in the holding.

Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz

Bundesgesetz zur Förderung der Einspeisung von Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien.

Employee satisfaction index

As part of the Group-wide employee survey conducted every two years, the index is calculated using questions about motivation, employee satisfaction and (emotional) connection on a scale of 1 to 5 (top value). 

Ecosystem (digital)

Gears structure and functionality toward organic systems. With ecosystems, a portfolio is developed from in-house developments, affiliated companies and partnerships for a specific subject area. The portfolio is organizationally separate from the core business. A forward-looking digital  cosystem is the smart and flexible nesting of individual independent business models.

Environment Plus

Special offers for customers in passenger transport to travel CO₂-free. 

F

Final energy

The energy form for which an end consumer receives an invoice, for example for the quantity of fuel added or the traction current obtained.

Floating rate note (FRN)

Bond with a variable interest rate.

G

Gross capital expenditures

Overall capital expenditures in property, plant and equipment and intangible assets – regardless of the type of financing.

German Sustainability Code

Provides a framework for reporting nonfinancial performance which can be used by organizations and companies of any size and legal form.

Gearing

Key financial indicator which, as a structural indicator, describes the ratio of net financial debt to equity as a percentage.

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

An international organization which is committed to the dissemination and improvement of sustainability reporting. The GRI standards are regarded as the most widely used and most internationally recognized reporting standard for sustainability.

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol

A globally recognized standard for classifying and managing greenhouse gas emissions which is used by many companies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and governments.

Gross profit

Amount of revenues remaining after deduction of the variable costs (= revenue-related) or direct costs (= contract-related).

H

Health rate (according to downtime)

Shows the proportion of lost labor that is not caused by illness in the overall performance (as a percentage and broken down by business units) and therefore only includes employees who are still paid a salary.

Hydrocarbons (NHMC)

These are found in crude oil, natural gas or coal, for example. Their emissions are regarded as harmful to the environment.

I

Intermodal competition

Competition between different modes of transport, for example between rail and air transport.

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

Internationally recognized accounting standard. Since 2002, IFRS has been regarded as the leading approach to standards adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board. Previously adopted standards are still cited as International Accounting Standards (IAS).

Interoperability (multi-system capability)

Ability of rolling stock to adapt to different technical standards (for example track gauges or power systems) and therefore run as seamlessly as possible between different rail networks in individual countries.

Intramodal competition

Competition within a mode of transport, for example within the railway sector.

Investment grants

Financing contributions from third parties in specified capital expenditure projects without future repayment requirements.

Interest-free loans

Loans from the Federal Government that have to be repaid, but are not interest-bearing. These result from financing contributions from the Federal Republic of Germany for  capital expenditures for track expansion and replacement.

K

K brake shoes

Brake shoe made from composite materials (K), see also V brake shoes.

Konsolidierungskreis

Gruppe der Tochterunternehmen eines Konzerns, die in den Konzern-Abschluss einbezogen sind.

L

Long-distance transport

Transport services using the products ICE and IC/EC.

LL brake shoe

Brake shoe made from composites (LL: low noise, low friction), see also V brake shoe.

Lost time injury frequency (LTIF)

Describes the relationship between accident frequency and hours actually worked based on one million working hours.

Local transport

Transport services using the products IRE, RB, RE and S-Bahn (metro).

M

Mode of transport

Transport medium such as road or rail.

N

Noise

Noise Disruptive or harmful noises for persons and the environment.

Noise reduction

Reduction of noise by active (for example noise barriers) and passive (for example soundproof windows) noise remediation, as well as noise reduction measures in vehicles.

Noise remediation program

Voluntary program of the Federal Government implemented by DB Group to reduce noise on existing rail lines.

Noise prevention

Legal claim to noise-protection measures on new construction and expansion lines.

Net financial debt

Balance of interest-bearing external liabilities and liabilities from finance leases, as well as cash and cash equivalents and interest-bearing external receivables.

Net capital expenditures

Gross capital expenditures less investment grants from third parties, for example for infrastructure capital expenditures.

Nettable plan assets

Assets that are netted against total pension obligations on the balance sheet.

Noise barrier

Means of active noise abatement on rail lines, usually made from materials such as aluminum, wood and concrete. New noise barriers are walls made from wire baskets filled with stones (gabions).

O

Overall punctuality

Covers at DB Netze Track all rail transport on DB Netz AG infrastructure.

On-demand services

Services that are supplied to customers when they need and request them.

operating leases

Off-balance-sheet financial instruments: leased or rented assets.

Operating income after interest

Profit figure that includes financing costs to assess profits in the long term (particularly relevant for infrastructure business units). Therefore, in comparison to EBIT, the net operating interest is also taken into account.

P

Purchasing volume

Net total of all order values from individual  orders and batches from framework agreements that were concluded by the respective product areas.

Particles

Tiny portions of matter, right down to then smallest traces, such as dust or soot.

Percentage of staffing needs covered

Represents the number of active staff, including part-time employees, trainees and dual degree students converted in as fulltime employees, divided by the full-time staffing requirements, including trainees and dual degree students.

Passenger kilometers (pkm)

Unit of measurement for volume sold in passenger trans-port: product of the number of passengers transported and the average travel distance.

Platooning

System that enables two or more vehicles to travel in close proximity using technical driving assistance and control systems. 

Primary energy

Energy calculated from the energy source in its natural form, for example including production, transport and conversion.

Punctuality

Share of stops on time in relation to all stops along and at the end of routes in Germany. A stop is considered on time if the stop has not exceeded the planned arrival time by more than 6 minutes in passenger transport or 16 minutes in freight transport.

R

Rate of people making connections on long-distance transport/long-distance transport

Percentage of connections in long-distance transport shown in the schedule that are actually made.

Requirement plan

New and expansion lines set out in the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan.

Renewable energies

Energy from renewable sources that are theoretically unlimited in supply, such as water, wind or sunlight.

Rating

Classification of creditworthiness provided by rating agencies which impacts the refinancing options and expenses of a company.

Ressource

Aid, fund, reserve, raw material.

Return on capital employed (ROCE)

Key performance indicator for value-based management. Equals the return on capital employed for business operations (capital employed). Percentage ratio of (adjusted) EBIT to the capital employed.

Redemption coverage

Key financial indicator that describes the ratio between the current financing strength and financial obligations of the company (adjusted net financial debt).

S

Supply chain

The stages of production illustrated as an orderly sequence of activities. These activities add value, consume resources and are interconnected in processes.

Sustainability

Guiding principle for the compatibility of environmental, social and economic objectives for sustainable and generationally compatible development.

Soot particles

Emissions produced during the combustion of diesel fuels. Diesel emissions also include particulate matter.

Scope 1 – 3 (in accordance with GHG)

As part of carbon accounting, emissions are divided into three scopes. For DB Group: scope 1 = greenhouse gas emissions from our own vehicles, scope 2 = traction current supply, scope 3 = transport services of our subcontractors. Due to our business model, scope 3 includes only transport-related emissions in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol.

Specific

Relative, for example based on the volume sold.

Stakeholders

Interest groups and representatives.

Stationary facilities

Buildings and facilities such as plants and train stations.

Station pricing system

Transparent and non-discriminatory pricing system for the use of passenger stations. The level of station prices depends largely on the performance level and level of equipment at the respective station.

Strommix

Zusammensetzung des Stroms nach Art der Energieerzeugung (zum Beispiel Steinkohle, erneuerbare Energien).

Sustainable development goals (SDGs)

Political targets set by the United Nations with a view to assuring sustainable development at the economic, social and environmental levels. The targets came into force on January 1, 2016 and run until 2030. They apply to all member states.

Swap

The basic concept for financial instruments that involve the exchange of future cash flows. This allows financial risks (interest, currencies, raw materials) to be hedged in a targeted manner.

Supply reliability

Measure of the reliability of energy supply for rail operations in Germany.

T

Traction current mix

Composition of the traction current of all train operating companies in Germany supplied by DB Netze Energy (in addition to other suppliers) through the traction current grid.

Tank-to-wheel (TTW)

Calculates emissions caused by burning fuel excluding the raw material extraction and production process.

Ton kilometers (tkm)

Unit of measurement for the volume sold in freight transport: product of the amount of freight carried (tons) and the distance (kilometers).

Traction

Drive to move trains. Depending on the energy source, drive unit and power transmission, a distinction is made between electric, diesel-electric, diesel-hydraulic and other types of traction. Traction units that also have diesel-assisted traction in addition to electric traction are also referred to as
hybrid vehicles.

Train path

The share of track capacity that is required for a train to travel between two locations in a set time.

Train-path kilometers (train-path km)

See volume produced.

Train-path pricing system (TPS)

Includes the prices for train path utilization by customers (in particular those of train operating companies) depending on the particular market segment and the train-path kilometers traveled.

Transport contract

Agreement between the contracting organization and train operating company to provide regional passenger transport services.

Train kilometers (train km)

Equal to the journey of a train over a distance of 1 km.

U

United Nations Global Compact

The world’s largest and most important initiative for responsible corporate management. On the basis of its ten universal principles, it pursues the vision of an inclusive and sustainable global economy to the benefit of all people, communities and markets, today and in the future.

V

Volume produced

Distance traveled by train operating companies on the rail network. Unit of measurement: train-path kilometers (train-path km).

V brake shoes

Brake shoe made from composites (Verbundstoffen; V) which halves the rolling noise of freight cars. Collective term for K and LL brake shoes.

Vegetation control

Checking and cutting/removing vegetation in and on the tracks using mechanical and chemical (only in the immediate vicinity of the tracks) procedures.

Volume sold

Key indicator to measure the service provided in passenger and freight transport. Units of measurement: passenger kilometers (pkm), ton kilometers (tkm).

W

Whisper brake

See K and LL brake shoe.

Well-to-wheel (WTW)

Method of calculating fuel emissions including the entire supply process.